Potato CultivationThe potato (Solanum tuberosum) is a perennial vegetable, typically grown as an annual starting from seed potatoes. Seed potatoes are small tubers (or pieces of tuber) specifically cultivated for this purpose. Being free of diseases is the most important characteristic of seed potatoes.
Potatoes can be grown almost anywhere. The most important limitation for the cultivation of potato is temperature: potatoes need a cool but frost-free growing season. If the temperature is over 30C or below 10 tuber growth slows strongly. Best yields are obtained if the average daily temperature is in the 18 - 20 C range.
For that reason, potato is planted in early spring in temperate zones and late winter in warmer regions, and grown during the coolest months of the year in hot tropical climates. In some sub-tropical highlands, mild temperatures and high solar radiation allow farmers to grow potatoes throughout the year.
Potato varieties can be classified according to the number of days they require to come to harvest: “early” season (75-90 days), “midseason” (90-135 days), and “late-season” (135-160 days).